How museums were created in Holland Automatic translate
In Holland there was no royal court, and there was no aristocracy who would seek to collect works of art in order to assert their prestige. This is how the Louvre Museum appeared in France, the Vienna Museum in Austria and the Hermitage in Russia. In other European countries, orders were often given to artists by the church. There the canvas or sculpture was stored, regardless of changes in tastes.
Large private collections sometimes appeared in the country, but after the death of the collector they disintegrated. In burgher houses, only family portraits were preserved. Sometimes they were valuable works, and in the 19th - 20th centuries the new owner transferred them to the museum.
In the 18th century, so-called “art cabinets” were created.
In 1795, the French entered the territory of Holland. Pictures from The Hague were sent to Paris, and not the rest was sold. But in other Oransky palaces there were still many canvases, which at that time could be purchased literally for a penny. In 1800, an art gallery opens, and in 1801 a short catalog is published.
In 1808, King Louis Napoleon Bonaparte moved from The Hague to Amsterdam. Here, at his service was provided a magnificent building of the town hall, which was quickly freed from the employees, but there was nowhere to put up paintings that were in one of the halls. These were paintings by famous masters, including The Night Watch. Louis agreed that the huge canvas of the famous artist Rembrandt remained in its usual place.
Louis Napoleon creates a museum in the palace, to which Amsterdam transferred 8 group portraits, and the national art gallery transported several more paintings. Appointed as director of the museum, Cornelis the Apostle acquired paintings from private collections. In 1809, the museum published a catalog with a description of 460 paintings.
In 1810, the king abdicated, obeying the demand of his brother. After that, the Netherlands was included in France, whose government was not interested in the Amsterdam Museum, there was no money for the purchase of new works in the treasury. Cloths of famous artists peacefully hung in their places. Here they were discovered by the son of the formerly expelled Wilhelm V, who returned to his homeland in 1813, who was soon proclaimed king by William I. The new ruler opposed having a museum in his residence.
The paintings are moved to Trippenhays - a mansion built in 1662 by architects Wingbons. The building was remodeled and in 1817 the famous Rijksmuseum opened in it.
At this time, the government secured the return of many art treasures from France. Basically, these were canvases from the collection of William V, which became the basis of the museum, which opened at the beginning of 1822 in The Hague. It was housed in the majestic Mauritshuis, whose construction lasted more than ten years and was completed in 1644. The building was erected according to the plan of van Kampen for one of the princes of Orange.
In the 19th century, a resident of Utrecht, Mr. Boymans, put together a large collection of works of art. However, there were rumors that the collection included paintings of low quality, and even equipped with fake signatures of famous painters. Therefore, the mayor refused Boymans, who wished to sell the collection to the city. The collector was offended, and bequeathed his collection to Rotterdam, setting only one condition: the museum will bear his name. He bequeathed 1193 paintings, but only 240 were deemed worthy of exposure. In 1864, a fire occurred in the museum building, the flame destroyed many objects, only a few paintings were preserved.
The management of the Harlem Magistrate also decided to establish their own museum. The city owned a huge number of group portraits, including several paintings by Frans Hals, which became the basis of the collection, determining its direction. The museum opened in 1862.
The Rotterdam and Harlem museums are urban property and are subordinate only to the magistrate.
The Rotterdam Museum is an exception among city museums, there is a wide variety of collections and a huge scope of exhibition activity. The Harlem Museum exhibits are mainly works by local artists. This composition of the collections is typical for museums in the Netherlands. Quite often, materials on the history of the city and paintings of historical interest are posted here. But in each of the museums there are dozens of paintings that have national or world significance. For example, in the Leiden Museum you can see one of the major works of Dutch painting of the 16th century - the world-famous altar triptych of Lucas van Leiden with the image of the Last Judgment.
Museums in the Netherlands were created at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries at the initiative of the local intelligentsia. They include: the Rijksmuseum and Mauritshuis, although they were founded by decree of the rulers of France and Holland. In the last century, gatherings came from private donations. Donate paintings or money to purchase them. At the beginning of the twentieth century. The Rembrandt Society was founded - a special organization that collects funds for museums. Many major acquisitions today are happening with the help of this society.
In the XIX century. the collection of museums consisted practically of paintings by masters of the 17th century. Heads of museums become famous art scholars. Canvases are also bought by unique masters of the so-called “Golden Age”, sections of Dutch art from the 15th to the 19th centuries are formed. There were also works of Italians and French. Several new museums have opened in Amsterdam and The Hague, which are dedicated to the art of the XIX-XX centuries. Unique collections of prints and drawings have developed.
In 1945, the so-called State service engaged in the distribution of works of art. The authorities of the Netherlands seek to return to Germany the art values belonging to museums and private individuals.