Acmeism, Futurism and Symbolism Automatic translate
In contrast to symbolists oriented towards the free flow of meanings and to music of a poem, acmeists were closer to spatial arts: painting, sculpture, architecture, in which the form was clearly structured and the material tangible. In the article “Morning of Acmeism” written by O. Mandelstam in 1913, the idea of architecture as the principle of acmeism was declared. Acmeists tried to combine the objective and the poetic. A sense of personal involvement in the "universal movement", including the historical process, was traced in the fact that the lyrical heroes were identified among the acmeist poets with mythological characters and real historical figures. Poets of this direction were united in the group “Workshop of poets” (1911-1914; 1920-1922), they published the magazine “Hyperborea” and the almanac “Workshop of poets”.
In parallel with acmeism, another trend arose in the poetic horizon - futurism. It was presented by D. Burdyuk, V. Khlebnikov, A. Kruchenykh, V. Kamensky, early V. Mayakovsky, I. Severyanin, B. Pasternak, as well as V. Shershenevich and others. The purpose of these poets was a revolution in art. They did not recognize the old bourgeois-noble art, including symbolism and acmeism. Futurists advocated "freedom in art." This combined futurism with decadence. They came in contact with representatives of a decline in art and in the desire for form innovation, expressed in language experimentation (“words free” or “zaum”), the imposition of formalism, and the rejection of the best achievements of Russian classical literature.
The Symbolists advocated the autonomy of poetry, and the Futurists claimed that art needed a super-task, that it was through art that one could anticipate and realize the coming "world revolution" and the birth of a "new humanity."
Acmeists viewed modernity in the light of past cultural experience, as if placing the present in the past; Futurists competing with them tried to move the present into the future. These ideas are reflected in the poetic collections of futurists: “The Judges’ Pool” (1910, 1913), “Slap to the Public Taste” (1912), and “The Dead Moon” (1913).