Symbolism - the rationale for modernity Automatic translate
Symbolism for its representatives became both a way of thinking and a way of life. The system of symbolism was represented in the form of a worldview pyramid, the edges of which should be science and religion, poetry and natural science, the philosophy of technology and the philosophy of art, cognition and creativity. The Symbolists sought to penetrate the secrets of being and consciousness, to see the ideal essence of the world and its absolute beauty.
Symbolist poets used symbolic words. The symbol was perceived by them as a universal tool of knowledge, expressing a hidden meaning inaccessible to ordinary consciousness. The Symbolists believed that the poet acts as a mediator between two worlds: the real and the super-sensual. Hence the cult of a creative personality propagated by them, and the inevitable aestheticism, and “art for art”, which can only be comprehended by “initiated and enlightened personalities”.
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Symbolism found its justification in modernity, becoming its determining element, its artistic program. The lyric-philosophical stream of modernist music was reflected in the work of A. N. Scriabin. 1910 went down in the history of Russian poetry as a year of summing up the results of symbolism. It became the border between the symbolist and post-symbolist eras.
Acmeism also belonged to the modernist trend in literature. In December 1912, a program of acmeism was proclaimed in the poetic cabaret “Stray Dog”. The meaning of the term "acmeism" was explained by N. Gumilev in one of the reviews. Ascending in its meaning to the ancient Greek concept of "prosperity, peak, peak", acmeism, according to the poet, defines the "prosperity of all spiritual and physical forces." Its representatives were S. Gorodetsky, N. Gumilev, A. Akhmatova, O. Mandelstam, who proclaimed the liberation of poetry from symbolism, ambiguity of images and complicated metaphor. They wanted to return poetry to the material world, the element of "nature", the exact meaning of the word. The “earthly” poetry of Acmeists is characterized by individual modernist motifs, manifested in a tendency to aestheticism, intimacy, poetry of feelings, a cult of concreteness.
- Acmeism, Futurismus und Symbolismus
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