Constructivism, Rationalism, Functionalism and Desurbanism Automatic translate
Constructivism as a trend in artistic culture with particular clarity declared itself in the 20-30s. XX century He brought to the fore the constructive and technical side of creativity, making one of the main tasks the design of the material environment surrounding a person. The transformation of reality was carried out by using new technology to create simple, logical, functionally justified forms and appropriate designs. According to constructivist ideas, folded reinforced concrete hangars of the hangar in Orly near Paris were erected by engineer E. Freysine.
Rationalism sought to develop new architectural methods that meet modern society needs, aesthetic needs and the level of industrial and technical development. He puts forward the requirement of unity of architectural form, design and functionally determined spatial structure. The principles of rationalism were implemented by Le Corbusier in France and the Bauhaus school in Germany.
Le Corbusier (1887-1965) is considered one of the most influential architects of the XX century. This French architect was not only a practitioner, but also a theoretician of architecture. Le Corbusier was among the creators of such modern trends in architecture as rationalism and functionalism. He saw in modern technology and serialization of industrial construction the basis for updating architecture, sought to aesthetically identify the functionally justified structure of the structure. Of course, five of its principles influenced modern architecture: a pillar house, a flat roof garden, a free interior plan, horizontally extended windows and a free facade layout. According to Le Corbusier’s projects, many buildings were built in Europe and Asia, including the building of the Central Union in Moscow on Myasnitskaya Street (1955). He also created large urban ensembles, for example Chandigarh in India (1951 - 1956).
Functionalism required strict compliance of buildings and structures with industrial and domestic processes (functions) taking place in them. This architectural direction takes shape almost simultaneously in Germany and the Netherlands. V. Gropius erects in Germany the building of the Fagus factory. Its facade is a solid glass wall, providing interior lighting. Functionalism is characterized by new principles of architectural practice, such as the typification and industrialization of construction, the creation of small-sized ("minimal") apartments. New techniques and planning standards are emerging not only for buildings, but also for entire residential complexes: standard sections and apartments, “lowercase” building up of quarters with the ends of buildings to the street, etc. In cities, territories have been “zoned”, allocating special spaces for each function: a business center, "Sleeping area", etc. Skyscrapers can serve as an example of a functional-rationalistic approach to architecture.
In contrast to this largely industrialized architecture, utopian trends emerge, in particular disurbanism. The Englishman E. Howard developed the concept of a garden city promoting healthy lifestyle , but the practical application of this concept yielded insignificant results, despite all the efforts of the Association of Garden Cities, covering England, France, Russia.
The opposition to avant-garde art and architecture was represented by national romance and neoclassicism. At the same time, a number of traits of both neoclassicism and national romance corresponded to the canons of modernity (for example, the predominance of the author’s fiction over impressions of nature or the patterned-ornamental composition and plane-graphic manner inherent in national romance that did not imply the transmission of a light-air environment).
Text writer: M.V.Sokolova
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