Mannerism. The crisis of humanism Automatic translate
The 15th century was the heyday of the Renaissance culture. It seemed to many that nothing would stop the progress of mankind, based on the ideas of humanists. However, the changes that have begun in public life have again turned the idea of the universe and man. In the early 16th century, the formerly omnipotent Catholic Church had powerful rivals - Lutherans. The war between Catholics and Lutherans was so cruel and inhuman that humanism was in a deep crisis, and the belief in a "beautiful" and rational person did not. This struggle escalated especially when mercenaries, among whom there were many Lutherans, entered Rome and subjected it to terrible plunder. The Pope took refuge in the castle of the Holy Angel, which was under siege. Only having bought off the attackers with a gigantic amount of money, the Pope managed to stay alive, although many church hierarchs were killed. Also affected and artists. Some of them died, while others were in a foreign land. The art of that time responded to the horror of what was happening with the loss of Renaissance harmony and order. In Italian painting, a trend called Mannerism arose.
In this style, reality begins to distort again. It would seem that humanity already knew perfectly the anatomy, thanks to the efforts of artists and doctors of the Renaissance. Artists already knew how to draw a human body. But in the era of mannerism, figures begin to disproportionately lengthen. Artists increase the number of vertebrae in the backs of portrayed people. A classic example of such a bizarre approach to nature is the painting “Madonna with a Long Neck” by Parmigianino. Space is also greatly and improbably distorted.
Of course, in this style there are all the formal traits responsible for the expression of anxiety and fear. The colors in the paintings become painfully bright and contrasting. Often the use of completely caustic colors. The subjects of this era are universal confusion and chaos. Often, a serpentine line is used as a composite element. In general, the lines in the paintings of the mannerists are curved or angular, broken and sharp.
A peculiar manifesto of mannerism can be considered a painting by Jacopo Pontormo "Descent from the Cross", written in 1527. There are a lot of figures on it, arranged in dense and numerous rows and moving in a frantic rhythm, and although facial expressions seem a bit detached, but gestures express strong emotions. The composition itself looks shaky and unstable, and the color scheme consists of piercing pink, unpleasant lemon - yellow and harsh blue tones. Similar features can be seen in the picture of Rosso Fiorentino with the same plot.
In the era of mannerism, life philosophy began to change. There was an opinion that the universe is chaotic, and human life depends on chance. And this position is not surprising if we recall the living conditions at that time. An important idea in art was the idea that an artist is not required to copy nature. On the contrary, he receives the image of the picture with the help of inspiration and imagination and transfers it to the canvas. In painting, the individual manner of the artist began to be appreciated most of all.
Spread across Europe
After the looting of Rome, Italian artists were scattered throughout the cities of Europe. The art of Mannerism came from Rome and Tuscany, but did not affect all artists. The Renaissance tradition continued for a long time in Venice, where wealth, stability and prosperity were preserved, while in Central and Northern Italy Mannerism reigned supreme. But over time, and in Venice, mannerism manifested itself in the work of the great painter Tintorento. One of those Italian artists who adopted the new trends was Giorgio Vasari. In his writings, the ideology of mannerism was formulated. Also at this time, the mannerist Agnolo Bronzino worked in Florence. Over time, the style crossed the Alps and ended up in other European countries.
Of course, time heals, and after the first horror of hostilities, art became a little calmer. The former majesty returned to it, although such a high taste as in the Renaissance never happened again. Mannerism was transformed into the early Baroque, which was characterized by a craving for luxury, exaggeration and pleasure. The crisis in culture lasted almost the entire sixteenth century (from the late 1510s) and the first third of the seventeenth century. Renaissance ideas never came true. And, alas, the wars of the New Age - this is not the worst thing that awaited humanity in the following centuries of gloomy and difficult world history.
- Lecture by Svetlana Ershova "Mannerism - Awakening of Anxiety"
- Return to order. How avant-garde artists of the 20th century switched to classicism
- Russische Kultur zur Zeit von Peter I.