From futurism to surrealism Automatic translate
Futurism is also considered the direction of Art Nouveau, the center of which Italy became. Italian futurist artists had their own program, expressed in manifestos and slogans. Their ideological inspiration was the writer Filippo Marinetti. Futurists wanted to assert themselves by destroying the centers of old culture: theaters, museums.
Their works are full of hyperdynamics. In order to best express the movement, the running of time, the accelerating pace of life, they resorted to such methods as, for example, increasing the number of legs in a running person in a picture.
In the XX century. the course of primitivists, or naivists, also arises. Artists of this direction are characterized by conscious simplification of artistic images and expressive means, orientation on the forms of primitive art. It is no accident that the primitive art, the traditional art of the peoples of Africa, Oceania and America, as well as the works of children and self-taught artists, become a model for them.
Interest in the stylization of folk and traditional art was laid in the work of P. Gauguin. The romantic cult of "naive" creativity not spoiled by civilization spread to many countries. In France, A. Rousseau followed, and in the USA, A. M. Moses.
After the First World War, a new artistic direction arises - surrealism. Its representatives proclaimed the source of creativity the sphere of the subconscious: instincts, dreams, hallucinations. Artists and poets saw surrealism as a way of knowing the subconscious, supernatural.
This trend begins in 1924, when the "Manifesto of Surrealism" by the French poet Andre Breton appeared. He defined the new artistic direction as "the dictation of the thoughts of reason, beyond any aesthetic and moral considerations." Such masters as M. Ernst, J. Miro, S. Dali, R. Magritte, I Tangi and others worked in a manner of surrealism. A distinctive feature of the work of these artists is the illogical combination of objects and phenomena.
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