From classicism to realism Automatic translate
Urban planning topic was widely represented in Russia. According to the plan of Karl Rossi (1775-1849), the “right square” is created in front of the Winter Palace, characterized by the inextricable link of buildings with the layout of the square itself. Facades of buildings were not only the external design of the structure, but also the border of the space area, determining the shapes and sizes of driveways. They erect ensembles of the Mikhailovsky Palace, the Alexandria Theater, the buildings of the Senate and the Synod in St. Petersburg. Moscow Empire was distinguished by greater softness of forms, national features.
"Nikolaev", or late classicism of the second third of the XIX century. captured in St. Isaac’s Cathedral by architect O. Montferrand. The temple was built 40 years (1818-1858). This is a huge building, faced with marble. The massive dome with 24 windows rises at a distance of 101.5 m from the ground. In four porticoes, 48 granite columns are placed; in total, the cathedral is decorated with 112 columns. Above the porticoes are pediments with majestic bas-reliefs depicting the most important events in the life of Jesus Christ and St. Isaac of Dalmatia, to whom the temple is dedicated. For the decoration and decoration of the cathedral, 20 types of decorative stone were used: malachite, lapis lazuli, porphyry, etc. Such artists and sculptors as K. Bryullov, F. Bruni, I. Vitali, N. Pimenov, P. Klodt took part in the design of the cathedral.. The harmony and beauty, luxury and majestic simplicity of this temple make it one of the most remarkable buildings in the world. Another significant work of O. Montferrand was the Alexander Column on Palace Square in St. Petersburg.
By the middle of the XIX century. the architecture of classicism entered a period of crisis and began to give way to eclecticism. A Russian-Byzantine style arises, which degenerates into an eclectic pseudo-Russian style. In the Russian-Byzantine style, the architect K. A. Ton built the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. He also built the Grand Kremlin Palace, trying to combine the motives of classicism and ancient Russian architecture in it.
In the second half of the XIX century. more and more civilian buildings began to be built: commercial and industrial, apartment buildings, train stations. But private enterprise contributed to the chaotic urban development. The crisis state of architecture led to the loss of the sense of the ensemble.
The first third of the XIX century. the sculpture was characterized by the rule of classicism, an example of which is the monument to Minin and Pozharsky in Moscow by I.P. Martos (1754-1835). But gradually, classicism is being replaced by realism. Masters (N. S. Pimenov, F. F. Kamensky, M. M. Antokolsky, M. O. Mikeshin) seek to concretize the face of a person, to show it with greater reliability in life. The sculptor-animalist, enjoying pan-European fame, was P.K. Klodt. In the field of monumental sculpture, the most talented artist was A. M. Opekushin, who immortalized his name in the monument to A. S. Pushkin (1880) in Moscow.
The beginning of the XIX century. It was marked in Russia by intense playing music, as well as a genuine theater boom. Theaters were built not only in the capitals, but also in many provincial cities, and the number of serf theaters was growing, although they began to be commercialized.
Folk music began to be performed mainly on the balalaika, which virtually replaced all other musical instruments. In 1888, the Russian musician V.V. Andreev, who perfected the balalaika, created the first orchestra of Russian folk instruments, which successfully gave concerts not only in Russia but also in Europe and the USA. The development of urban folklore was greatly influenced by the harmonica, which appeared in the 1830s.
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It was folk music that formed the basis of the greatest works of Russian classical music of the 19th century. M. I. Glinka (1804-1857) was the creator of Russian classical opera and Russian classical romance, he also laid the foundations of Russian symphony. Many musicologists believe that the role of M.I. Glinka in musical culture is comparable to the contribution of A.S. Pushkin in literature. “Life for the Tsar” and “Ruslan and Lyudmila” open the classical period in Russian opera. The closest follower of M.I. Glinka A.S. Dargomyzhsky (1813-1869) reflected in his work the tendencies of critical realism. The opera Mermaid laid the foundation for a new genre - the household psychological psychological drama.
Text writer: M.V. Sokolova
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