Construction of cities in Russia Automatic translate
From the 18th century urban construction is beginning to be perceived as a phenomenon subject to logic. Taking over the urban development of Europe, where since the time of the Renaissance the city was presented as a regularly and rationally planned ensemble, urban development projects also appear in Russia. Palace and park ensembles began to be created. The enfilade principle of the structure of the interior system and the use of the order system have become fashionable. Bilateral symmetry has become mandatory not only throughout the architectural composition, but also the interior.
The Petrine period is conventionally called in architecture "Peter’s Baroque", but it combined the features of Renaissance architecture, Baroque and Classicism. One of the first palace ensembles was the Lefortovo Palace in Moscow in the German settlement (1697-1699, architect I.P. Zarudny). A large number of foreign architects arrived in Russia. The Frenchman J. B. Leblon developed a draft layout of St. Petersburg. The Italian N. Michetti created the famous parks of Peterhof. Swiss D.A. Trezzini built the Peter and Paul Cathedral and the building of the Twelve Colleges. Of the most significant Russian architects, one can name MG Zemtsov, on whose projects many civil and church structures were built; I.K. Korobov, who planned the Admiralty Department, as well as M.P. Eropkin, who became famous for his works on the theory of architecture. The main theme of architecture is the glorification of the monarchical state. This allowed the historian V. O. Klyuchevsky to say that "the state has closed itself in the palace."
In the middle of the XVIII century. Baroque dominated in architecture, characterized by "barbaric" splendor. The synthesis of architecture, sculpture, painting and power of art . And although it was based on baroque, at the same time it is possible to trace the features and influence of both classicism and rococo, and domestic architectural tradition. Examples of Russian Baroque include the works of V.V. Rastrelli (1700-1771), the Grand Palace in Peterhof, the Grand or Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo, and, of course, the Winter Palace (1754-1762) in St. Petersburg.
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