XIX century in Russian literature Automatic translate
XIX century rightly called the "golden age" of Russian literature. Already in the first half of the century, literature took a giant step forward. At the beginning of the XIX century. classicism and sentimentalism were replaced by romanticism. In literature, this was most clearly reflected in the work of the poet V. A. Zhukovsky (1783-1852), as well as in the early poems of A. S. Pushkin (1799-1837). Romantics in their works turned to historical events, legends, oral folk poetry.
At the turn of the 20-30s. a new direction begins to develop - realism. One of the first realistic works was the comedy by A. S. Griboedov (1795-1829), "Woe from Wit." But the true founder of realism in Russian literature should be considered A.S. Pushkin, he was also the ancestor of the Russian literary language. The author of lyric poems and caustic epigrams, the novel in the poems “Eugene Onegin”, the poems “The Bronze Horseman”, “Boris Godunov”, “The Captain’s Daughter” and others, A.S. Pushkin not only proved himself to be a great poet, but also managed to comprehend the essence of the most important phenomena of Russian history and reality, depicted by him in all its diversity, complexity and inconsistency. To a large extent, realism is inherent in the novel by M. Yu. Lermontov (1814-1841), “A Hero of Our Time”. N.V. Gogol (1809-1852) developed critical realism, the purpose of which was to discover the vulgarities of life, as well as social criticism (The Examiner, Dead Souls). Gogol deepened the theme of "little man" ("The Overcoat"), introduced into Russian literature by A. S. Pushkin ("Station Warden").
In the 40s. a school of realist writers (“natural school”) is being formed, rallying around V. G. Belinsky (1811-1848). Realists sought to faithfully portray everyday life. They described the details of life, the features of speech, the emotional experiences of peasants, philistines, petty officials. Moscow map and the environs in those days already totaled thousands of objects used by writers as a scene in their works. The best works of that time include “Poor People” by F. M. Dostoevsky (1821-1881), “Notes of a Hunter” by I. S. Turgenev (1818-1883), “The Forty-Thief” by A. I. Herzen (1812-1870 ), “Ordinary History” by I. A. Goncharov (1812-1891).
In the 1850-1870s. aphorisms, parodies, and poems signed by Kozma Prutkov began to appear. Kozma Prutkov is a generalized image of a bureaucrat official of the Nikolaev era, who considers himself a model of wisdom. Kozma Prutkov’s aphorisms are a sharp satire on bureaucracy, stupidity, reverence, vulgarity and careerism.
Around the peasant reform of 1861, an ideological, political and literary struggle broke out. The most radical of the "people’s defenders" - the revolutionary democrats, whose leader was N. G. Chernyshevsky (1828-1889), and the main mouthpiece - the magazine "Contemporary", even called "Russia to the ax." In this atmosphere of intense struggle, such masterpieces of Russian literature are created as “To whom it is good to live in Russia” by N. A. Nekrasov (1821-1877), “The Past and Thoughts” by A. I. Herzen, “Crime and Punishment” F. M. Dostoevsky, “Fathers and Sons” by I. S. Turgenev, “Thunderstorm” by A. N. Ostrovsky (1823-1886), “What to Do?” By N. G. Chernyshevsky, “Oblomov” by I. A. Goncharov, “War and the world ”by L. N. Tolstoy (1828-1910),“ Lord Golovlev ”M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin (1826-1889). In these, in the full sense of the word, classical works, and this series can still be significantly continued, the highest civicism, the depth of the image of life inherent in Russian literature were most clearly expressed. The dominant literary genre was novel.
In the last decades of the XIX century. the talents of A.P. Chekhov (1860-1904), V.G. Korolenko (1853-1921), V.M. Garshin (1855-1888) appeared. In their works, they were able to show that dissatisfaction with autocratic reality is becoming nationwide, that protest is ripening even in the souls of the most downtrodden and humiliated "little" people. The longing for Chekhov’s heroes, a characteristic sense of the strangeness and unreasonability of life, acquired world significance. V. M. Garshin is already planning to overcome naturalistic tendencies and attempt to unite romantic and realistic principles in lyrical prose.
In the 1890s “Old” literature, according to the poetess Z. N. Gippius, “was at the tip”, it was replaced by the literature of the “Silver Age” (modern era).
Text writer: M.V. Sokolova
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