Siena at the dawn of the Renaissance. Works from the National Pinakothek in Siena, the State Archives of Siena, museums of Tuscany and the Pushkin Museum im. A.S. Pushkin Automatic translate
The new exhibition project will allow you to get acquainted with the art of painters who worked in the XIII-XV centuries in Siena - one of the leading art centers of that time. The exhibition includes works from the famous collection of the National Pinakothek in Siena, as well as the State Archives of Siena, the museums of Tuscany and the Pushkin Museum. A.S. Pushkin. This is the first time such an exhibition is held in Russia, and the selected works are of particular value and only in exceptional cases leave the walls of their native museums. Among the unique exhibits from Italy are wooden plaques "Tavoletta Bikkerna", painted by the best artists of Siena. The exhibition is part of an extensive program of the cross-year of museums in Russia and Italy, announced by the ministries of culture of both countries for 2021–2022. The project is supported by the Italian Embassy in Moscow.
Exhibition at the Pushkin Museum. A.S. Pushkin will present the Sienese school of painting to the Russian public for the first time, tell about its evolution from the 13th to the 15th century and its exceptional significance in the period immediately preceding the Renaissance. For the Russian viewer, acquaintance with the works of Sienese painting of the 13th-15th centuries is of particular importance, it was at this time that ancient Russian icon painting flourished, which continued to remain faithful to the Byzantine tradition. One of the objectives of the project is to acquaint visitors with the collection of the National Pinakothek of Siena, one of the largest and most important museums in Italy, in which the local school of painting is especially fully represented. Pushkin Museum im. A.S. Pushkin also has unique monuments of Sienese painting of the XIV-XV centuries. Particularly noteworthy is the signature Crucifixion by Senya di Bonaventura, a student of Duccio,two panels of the Sansepolcro polyptych by the artist Sassetta, as well as works by Andrea di Bartolo, Sano di Pietro, Matteo di Giovanni, Guidoccio Cozzarelli, Bernardino Fungai and other masters. This allows you to unite collections and build a dialogue between works from Italy and Russia.
The Siena school of painting is known for its versatility and its inherent mixture of Byzantine, Gothic and Renaissance elements, creating a unique fusion of different artistic traditions. From the very beginning of its formation at the end of the 13th century, it was influenced by Byzantine art. At this time, Duccio di Buoninsegna, a contemporary of Giotto and the founder of the local artistic tradition, worked in Siena, whose activities have been documented since 1278. His works still reveal a close connection with the art of Byzantium, and at the same time, one can trace a craving for the Gothic style, the grace and subtlety of which will leave an obvious trace in Sienese art. Many artists were guided by Duccio’s workshop, where something new was constantly being born, including those presented at the Senja di Bonaventura exhibition,Ugolino di Nerio and Niccolo di Senja. Among them - Simone Martini, in whose performance of the scenes of the lives of the saints, distinguished by the skillful construction of space, acquired new clarity of form and convincingness. The influence of the style of Simone Martini on subsequent Siena painting was felt in everything, it was developed by a number of artists, his "comrades", as they were called at the time. One of the direct successors of the master was his assistant Lippo Memmi. The close collaboration with the mentor created difficulties in the attribution of the works, however, Lippo had his own style, especially noticeable in the works he signed.it was developed by a number of artists, his "comrades", as they were called at the time. One of the direct successors of the master was his assistant Lippo Memmi. The close collaboration with the mentor created difficulties in the attribution of the works, however, Lippo had his own style, especially noticeable in the works he signed.it was developed by a number of artists, his "comrades", as they were called at the time. One of the direct successors of the master was his assistant Lippo Memmi. The close collaboration with the mentor created difficulties in attributing the works, however, Lippo had his own style, especially noticeable in the works he signed.
At a time when Duccio’s career was nearing completion, and Simone Martini entered a period of maturity, two other outstanding Sienese artists of the 14th century, the brothers Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti, loudly declared themselves. Pietro, combining elements of the styles of Duccio, Giotto and Simone Martini in his work, gravitated towards European Gothic, which he knew from the works of jewelers, and was also influenced by the sculpture of Giovanni Pisano. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, who was already recognized by the historians of the 15th century as the second most important artist of Trecento after Giotto, was considered an artist-philosopher, an artist-intellectual, also thanks to his participation in the political life of Siena. The interpretation of space in the works of the master and the intuitive use of perspective allow researchers to talk about the metaphysical component in the works of Ambrogio.
The Lorenzetti brothers died during the plague that rocked Europe in 1348, but the Sienese artists of the second half of the 14th century inevitably followed the path paved by these outstanding masters. Among their followers, whose works can be seen at the exhibition, it is worth mentioning Bartolo di Fredi, one of the most successful artists of the second half of the century, in whose works frank decorativeness is combined with expressiveness; Taddeo di Bartolo, who worked not only in Siena, but also in other Tuscan cities, as well as in Liguria and Umbria; Paolo di Giovanni Fei, who, despite his gravitation towards the style of Simone Martini, managed to find his own, original way of interpreting it and took a special place in the framework of international gothic.
At the beginning of the 15th century, when the Renaissance tradition was gaining strength in Florence, in Siena such artists as Sassetta (Stefano di Giovanni), Giovanni di Paolo, Sano di Pietro and others formed their own, recognizable artistic language, based on the traditions of their outstanding predecessors. Everything new that the Renaissance brought with it was adapted to the local style - graceful, sophisticated, elegant, based on exceptional technical skill, which makes the Siena school unique for its time. The Siena school of painting is characterized by a pronounced individuality, its adherence to tradition and the desire to demonstrate independence from Florence, along with which Siena has long remained one of the main artistic centers of Italy.Even when Siena faced an economic and political crisis in the 15th century, its art still flourished until it finally ceded primacy to the Florentine school.
Along with paintings on religious subjects, the exhibition features the "Tavoletta Bikkerna" - 10 tablets representing a unique form of secular art that took place only in Siena. For the first time, Russian viewers will have the opportunity to get acquainted with the best examples of this little-known genre thanks to the support of VTB Bank. Such a number of tavolettes have never left the Main Archive of Siena, where, for reasons of preservation and their exceptional value, they are not in constant public access. "Tavolettes Bikkerns", also known as "Bikkerns" by the name of the institution for which they were made, or as "tavolettes", that is, "plaques" - written on a wooden basis of the cover of the expenditure books of the Siena Treasury. The Bikkerns were painted from the Middle Ages (1257) to the end of the 17th century.The best Sienese artists were involved in this work - the Lorenzetti brothers, Lippo Vanni, Giovanni di Paolo and others. Initially, the Tavolettes had a utilitarian function. Simple drawings that helped quickly find the right book took shape in a special genre of secular painting, the iconography of which included images of the heads of the treasury and their jobs. Over time, from a utilitarian element, the tavolettes turned into an original work of art, and later into a collectible. At the same time, today they represent the most important source of knowledge about the history of Siena and the structure of the Siena state.the iconography of which included images of the heads of the treasury and their jobs. Over time, from a utilitarian element, the tavolettes turned into an original work of art, and later into a collectible. At the same time, today they represent the most important source of knowledge about the history of Siena and the structure of the Siena state.the iconography of which included images of the heads of the treasury and their jobs. Over time, from a utilitarian element, the tavolettes turned into an original work of art, and later into a collectible. At the same time, today they represent the most important source of knowledge about the history of Siena and the structure of the Siena state.
The exhibition of works by the masters of the Sienese school continues a series of exhibitions representing the most important moments in the history of Italian painting. In the Pushkin Museum. A.S. Pushkin, projects have already taken place dedicated to outstanding masters - Caravaggio (2011–2012), Titian (2013), Raphael (2016), - as well as the collection of the Academy of Carrara in Bergamo (2014); joint projects with the Roberto Longhi Foundation in Florence (Caravaggio and the Followers, 2015), with the Palazzo Chiericati in Vicenza (From Tiepolo to Canaletto and Guardi, 2018–2019), with the Capodimonte National Museum in Naples (Artemisia Gentileschi and his contemporaries ", 2019). The curator of these projects, as well as of the present exhibition, is Victoria Markova, Doctor of Art History, Chief Researcher of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. A.S. Pushkin.
Curator: Victoria Emmanuilovna Markova, Chief Researcher of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. A.S. Pushkin
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