Italian romanticism Automatic translate
A special place in the European culture of the XIX century. It takes Italian opera. The idols of the century were composers Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848), Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835), Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) and Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1857-1919. With the work of J. Rossini, which reflected the rise of Italian culture, the heyday of Italian opera is associated. The composer possessed an inexhaustible melodic ingenuity and dramatic flair. He revived, enriching with realistic content, an opera-buff top of which one can rightly be called the "Barber of Seville".
G. Donizetti is considered a typical representative of romanticism. The flowering of Belcanto art is associated with his work. The best works of V. Bellini, written in the style of romanticism, are Norma and Puritans.
One of the largest realist composers was Giuseppe Verdi. His works are distinguished by the truthfulness of the embodiment of mental conflicts. The operas of this composer are a high example of psychological drama, where the music is closely connected with the action: “Aida”, “Othello”, “Rigoletto”, “La Traviata”, “Don Carlos”, “Falstaff”.
Giacomo Puccini was the representative of verism close to the naturalism of the trend, which was characterized by a truthful depiction of everyday life, the dark sides of the life of the poor (but in the absence of a “sentence” to social vices of society). He created such masterpieces of opera art as “Bohemia”, “Chio-Cio-san”, “Turandot”. In the verismo style of R. Leoncavallo (one of the founders of this style), the operas “Pagliacci”, “Life of the Latin Quarter”, and “Zaza” were written. Italian opera has rightfully occupied a leading place in the world.
A reaction to bourgeois tastes was the foundation by the young artists H. Hunt, D. G. Rossetti, J. E. Milles and F. M. Brown in 1848 of the "Brotherhood of the Pre-Raphaelites." The ideological inspirer of this association was art critic and critic J. Reskin. He oriented artists to Doraphaelian Italian painting. According to Reskin, art, by virtue of its apostolic mission, should contribute to the purification and exaltation of the spiritual principle in man. The Pre-Raphaelites did not recognize official art and turned to the technique of trecento and quattrocento. They expressed their views in a manifesto, the main ideas of which boiled down to the following: to write directly from nature, as truthfully and in harmony with the ideals of the art of the pre-Raphael era. Naturalism is characteristic of them (for example, when depicting nature, they reproduced the structure of plants with special care), the desire to restore naturalness to art. In their work, they often turned to biblical subjects. Society, for its part, did not accept their paintings, accusing them of helplessness and blasphemy.
Text writer: M.V. Sokolova