Mammoth Circle Automatic translate
In painting, the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. also indicated an active search for new forms. Russian art has never known such a number of groups, schools and trends, as in this time period. Artists substantiated their theoretical views in programs, various "platforms", exhibitions were preceded by intricate declarations and manifestos. For all the mosaic art, the outlines of two main currents, Moscow and St. Petersburg, in which pan-European trends manifested themselves, gradually emerged.
The Mamontov circle, which had been grouping since 1872 around the well-known philanthropist S. I. Mamontov and had its Abramtsevo estate near Moscow, became one of the art centers. Nationality as a reflection in the lyric-emotional lifestyles of the people and comprehension of folk poetry becomes the basis for the work of artists adjacent to this circle.
V.M. Vasnetsov (1848-1926) was one of the first in whose work these ideas were refracted. Since the 1880s, striving to create a “truly national” Russian art, he turned to folk-epic themes. The painter tried to combine genre-everyday painting with the style of folk art ("Alyonushka", "Ivan Tsarevich on the Gray Wolf", "Athletes"). He painted the cathedrals. His architectural projects are wonderful: “The hut on chicken legs” in Abramtsevo, his own house in Moscow, the facade of the Tretyakov Gallery.
The artist M.V. Nesterov (1862-1942), who was also attracted to folk traditions, was close to the Mamontov circle. Starting with genre paintings in the spirit of the Wanderers, he began in the 1880s. found his spiritual, religious and ethical ideal in the enlightened, spiritual beauty of people who neglected worldly vanity. He sought beauty in a religious legend, in silent unity with nature (“Hermit”, “Vision to the youth Bartholomew”).
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One of the best domestic landscape painters was I. I. Levitan (1860-1900), a student of A. K. Savrasov and V. D. Polenov. Levitan created the so-called mood landscape, when nature is inspired by the invisible presence of man in it. Gradually, the artist moves from concrete landscapes to a poetic generalization of typical features of Russian nature (“Evening ringing”, “At the whirlpool”, “Birch grove”, “Over the eternal rest”). I.I. Levitan preferred transitional moments in nature: spring - autumn; morning - evening, etc.
The most prominent representative of Russian impressionism was K. A. Korovin (1861-1939), a subtle master of realistic plein air painting. He managed both emotional landscapes (“In Winter”) and genre paintings (“At the Balcony”). Under the influence of impressionism, he developed a free decorative style in which he painted colorful spectacular theatrical scenery. His paintings sparkle and shimmer, representing a celebration of color, air and light.
The multi-genre artist was V. A. Serov (1865-1911). The best of his early works is A Girl with Peaches. Being an amazing colorist, the painter was perfectly able to depict a light-air environment. In his portraits, he not only affirmed the ideals of youth and beauty, but also conveyed the characteristic psychological features of man. Since the 1900s becoming a member of the group "World of Art", he is increasingly moving closer to the style of modernity. In later works, the artist turned to historical subjects (“Departure of Peter II and Tsarevna Elizaveta Petrovna”, “Abduction of Europe”). The best works of V. A. Serov belong to the heights of Russian realistic art.
M.A. Vrubel (1856-1910), after moving to Moscow from Kiev, where he worked a lot on the icons and paintings of the Kirillov Church, became close to Mamontov’s circle, designed the performances of his private opera (“Sadko” and “The Tale of Tsar Saltan” N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov). His art is brought closer to symbolism by the “eternal” themes, drawn from history and mythology, to which the artist gives a touch of meaningful mystery (“Pan”).