Music is an integral part of princely life Automatic translate
The origin of Russian music falls on the pre-state period. Eastern Slavs were well-known for such musical instruments as tambourines, clay whistles, flutes, and later a metal organ (a set of metal plates or hemispheres). The Byzantine chronicler Theophanes reports that in 583 three Slavs were captured “without any iron armor, with only one harp”.
During the period of Kievan Rus, a folk song held a huge place as a companion of everyday life. There were songs of the calendar cycle, family, comic, lullabies, lyric, etc. But the lyric song as a special genre was developed only in the XVI-XVII centuries. A peculiar “vocal” genre of Ancient Russia was men’s lamentations, when the squad mourned the prince.
Music was an integral part of princely life. She accompanied official ceremonies (entering the city for reign, meeting the prince, signing peace treaties) and funny feasts. It was also filled with leisure hours. For military affairs, it was also necessary. In each military unit there were pipes and other tools that served to collect and build troops, to maintain communication between the individual units during the battle. The laudatory chants, a kind of “triumphs”, were also very developed. It is known that princely singers and musicians occupied a high and honorable place in society, enjoyed recognition not only of secular, but also of spiritual authority. The main carriers of both folk and professional music were buffoons. From the 11th century ensemble game began to appear. The main center of buffoons in Ancient Russia was Novgorod. Even in later times
Novgorod land “recruited” buffoons to other areas. It is known that by order of Ivan the Terrible in 1571, a mass recruitment of buffoons was made in Novgorod for shipment to Moscow. The 16th century can be called the pinnacle of the development of good-art in Russia.
A type of long lyrical song arose precisely in Great Russian lands, when the process of land unification began. Neither the Ukrainians nor the Belarusians had anything like this: these peoples had their own song lyrics. It is with a long lyrical song that polyphony begins to develop in Russia. At the same time, many-vocal singing arises.
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With the adoption of Christianity, church music began to develop. She was an integral part of the church ritual. Church singing was part of the circle of compulsory disciplines taught at school. Monasteries also begin to play an important role from the 11th century in the development of church singing, in particular, the Kiev Pechersky, which was the main cultural center in Russia. Forms of church singing were also largely inherited from Byzantium. But gradually an original type of Old Russian singing arose - the famous chant. Iotization begins not earlier than the middle of the XII century, and in the practice of church singing for a long time oral tradition prevailed. Only in the XIV-XV centuries all kinds of church chants were placed on the “banner” (banners — signs that used to record singing texts, the recording itself was called hook, by the name of one of its main characters), and singing by “hooks” became universal everyday life. Russian annals testify that already in the 12th and 13th centuries there were singing schools. The largest among them was the Novgorod school, which retained this role until the sixteenth century. In the 16th century, measures were taken to streamline church singing.
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