From social realism to cubism Automatic translate
A characteristic phenomenon in the visual arts of Western countries was social realism. This movement was based on a socio-political basis. Social realism is characterized by a critical judgment about life and at the same time affirming a realistic beginning. The main hero in the art of social realism is the people.
Artists are alien to the romantic world view and aestheticization of reality. Events and heroes are presented as they are in life. The “Truth of Life” can be found on the canvases of the Frenchman M. Luce, the Norwegian E. Munch, the Slovenian I. Grohar. The industrial world is represented in the works of this artistic direction as a harsh element that gives birth to heroes. These ideas can be clearly seen in the engravings of the Englishman F. Brangwin, paintings of the Irish P. Henry and the sculpture of the Belgian K. Menier.
At the same time, the humanistic views of artists and their sense of drama of social life are also expressed in works that avoid direct, full-scale reproduction of reality. Of great social and political importance were such works by the French painter Pablo Picasso (1881 - 1973), such as "Dove of Peace" and "Guernica." They are filled with deep humanistic content and are full of protest against violence.
In many countries at the beginning of the XX century. modernism united a significant group of currents. In France, at the same time, a group of painters was formed, called the Fauves (from French lesfauves - wild), and in Germany the society "Bridge" appeared, whose members were assigned the name of expressionists (from Latin expressio - expression). Black and white modeling of the form, volumetric and spatial composition of the composition, etc. were excluded from the Fauvist’s paintings. They are characterized by the elemental dynamics of writing, the intensity of open color, the sharpness of the rhythm, a sharp generalization of volumes, space and pattern. One of the leaders of Fauvism was Henri Matisse (1869-1954). In his works “Music”, “Dance”, “Red Fishes”, one can clearly see the desire to express the festive beauty of the world and the joy of life. His paintings are full of large colorful planes, and the conventionality of form and space obeys the general planar and color rhythm.
This art did not set itself the goal of looking like life. His task was to convey to the viewer the aesthetic emotions of the author. It is they, and not ideas, that form the content of the paintings. The expressionists were united by an emotional-coloristic painting. They proclaimed the subjective spiritual world of man as the only reality, and the main goal of art is its expression.
The desire for a sharpened expression of emotions, unrealistic images was their characteristic feature. German expressionists, members of the Bridge group, create a juicy and multi-color painting in their still lifes and landscapes (K. Schmidt-Rotluff), turn to biblical themes (E. Nolde). Urban motifs are characteristic of the painting of E.L. Kirchner, and subjects related to the correlation of nature and man are a distinctive feature of E.Hekkel’s painting.
In the style of expressionism can be drawn, for example, wedding cartoon . Merry, elaborate manners of presenting reality in this case are very opportune.
Within the framework of expressionism, the first examples of abstract art appeared (works by V. Kandinsky and F. Mark). Expressionism was inherent not only in painting, but also in literature (G. Trakl, G. Benn, G. Kaiser, F. Werfel and others), and also manifested itself in music and cinema (composers and filmmakers A. Schenberg, A. Berg, R. Vine, P. Leni).
One of the directions of modernism was cubism, the founder of which is considered to be P. Picasso. Cubists proceeded from the fact that all objects and phenomena of the world, including humans, can be depicted in the form of geometric shapes. One of the first works, written in the spirit of cubism, was a picture of P. Picasso "Avignon Maidens" (1907). Cubism is one way of a new understanding of reality. His artistic practice is very diverse. J. Marriage creates cubic collages and even prints text on paper. Another thing was that foreign materials began to be introduced into paintings: glass, sawdust, sand, iron, etc. Cubism is a plastic experiment, the techniques of which have been used by artists for half a century.
Text writer: M.V.Sokolova