Painting styles Automatic translate
Painting is a type of fine art. Painting is divided into the following types:
- theatrical and decorative;
Unlike other types, in painting the main expressive value is color, due to which it performs an aesthetic, cognitive, ideological and documentary role.
Painting is the transfer of images with liquid paints, in contrast to graphics. The paints are oil paint, tempera, gouache, enamel, watercolor, etc.
The style of painting is a direction with general ideas, technique of execution, characteristic image techniques. The formation of styles was influenced by politics and economics, ideology and religion. Therefore, each style can be considered as a representative of its time.
The directions and styles of painting are no less diverse than the means of its depiction. Sometimes there is no clear separation of styles. When mixing several styles, a new one is obtained. But with all the diversity, there are several main areas:
This European style was common in the 9-14 centuries. Bible stories, lack of perspective, emotionality and pretentiousness are the main features of this style. Representatives: Giotto, Traini.
The 14-16th century marks a return to antiquity, a celebration of the beauty of the human body, and humanism. The main representatives are Michelangelo Buonarotti, Leonardo da Vinci.
Direction in painting of the 16th century. The style is the opposite of the Renaissance. The name comes from the word "manner". Representatives of this trend are Vasari, Duve.
Pompous, luxurious painting style of 16-18 centuries in Europe. It is distinguished by the brightness of colors, attention to detail and decoration.
16th century. A more refined, refined and intimate continuation of the Baroque style. Representatives: Boucher, Watteau.
The style inherent in European culture of the 17-19th centuries. The picture from the point of view of classicism should be built on strict canons. The style of classicism is the heir to antiquity and the Renaissance. The main representatives of this style are Rafael, Poussin.
19th century style. The name of the style comes from the word "empire". It is a continuation of the development of classicism in its majesty, luxury and sophistication. The main representative is J. L. David.
The style of the 19th century, which was preceded by classicism. Emotionality, individuality, expressiveness of images. He was distinguished by the image of such emotions as horror, awe. Advocates folk traditions, legends, national history. Representatives: Goya, Bryullov, Delacroix, Aivazovsky.
19th century painting style. A stylized simplified image leading to primitive forms resembling primitive drawings. A striking representative is Pirosmani.
Style 19-20 centuries. Basically truthfully reflects objective reality, without excessive emotionality. Often depicted people during work. Artists: Repin, Shishkin, Savrasov, Mane.
Style 19-20 centuries. Harmonious color combination of geometric shapes, aimed at achieving a variety of associations. Representatives: Picasso, Kandinsky.
Style 19-20 centuries. The style of painting in the open air, in the open air. Performed in a characteristic manner overflows of light, the technique of a small smear, the movement transmitted by the master. The name was given to the style by Monet’s “Impression”. The main representatives of this style are Renoir, Monet, Degas.
20th century style. An exaggerated image of emotions for a greater effect on the viewer. Among the representatives of this style is Modigliani, Munch.
The avant-garde style of the 20th century. It is characterized by broken (cubic) lines, a certain combination of objects simultaneously considered from several points of view. The founder of this style is Picasso.
Style 19-20 centuries. It is the antithesis of conservative images of realism. The shocking, plastic style of painting represents original paintings reflecting the artist’s inner world. Representatives: Picasso, Matisse.
20th century style. An ironic image of banal, often vulgar, objects. Commonly used in marketing and advertising. A prominent representative of this trend is Andy Warhol.
The direction of 19-20 centuries. Spirituality, dreams, myths and legends. Symbols, often ambiguous, characterize this style. It is the forerunner of expressionism and surrealism. Representatives: Vrubel, Vasnetsov, Nesterov.
20th century style. Allusions, a mixture of spaces of reality and sleep, unusual collages. It impresses the subconscious. A great contribution to this style was made by Dali, Magritte.
An experimental trend in contemporary art, which reflects antisocial behavior in violation of generally accepted moral, ethical principles. Representative of the style - Shemyakin.
What is style?
What exactly is meant by style in art? This is a kind of ideological and artistic unity, thanks to which artists give preference to certain topics and special visual means. They remain individual, but looking at a particular canvas, it is already possible to almost accurately determine the era and style.
Europe took shape in the Middle Ages. And painting developed from icon painting. On Russian soil, there was even a transitional genre - parsuna. This is no longer an icon, but also not a portrait. And only when art is gradually freed from the power of the church, becomes more secular and secular, painting as a form of art acquires all rights.
Style after style
The first pan-European style in painting can be considered not Romanesque and Gothic (there is mainly architecture), but Baroque.
This is the style of allusions, omissions, allegories, the style of allegories and metaphors. Rembrandt and Rubens are his typical representatives. Rococo is a kind of degenerate baroque. Style is not so much in painting as in applied art. F. Boucher and A. Watteau left the most striking examples of Rococo painting. The painting itself is refined, with a touch of eroticism, designed in pastel colors, full of mythological motifs. The eighteenth century becomes the century of the rule of classicism. This is already a heroic painting in which rulers and generals are glorified. The addiction of artists to mythological and historical subjects is observed. Strict proportions, the unity of content and form, the division of characters into positive and negative, into main and secondary - these are just some of the features of classicism. Then comes the short but vibrant age of sentimentalism. In the sphere of his influence, in addition to painting, there is also poetry. Sentimentalists deepen the content of art, fill it with psychological tension. They turn the painting to the needs and demands of ordinary people. Art is democratized. On the canvases now are not gods and heroes, but cooks, laundresses, workers. For the most unsightly work. Sentimentalism is being replaced by romanticism. With his stormy passions, unusual, non-domestic characters, a cult of inspiration. It is enough to compare the portraits of Pushkin by Kiprensky and Tropinin to feel the fundamental difference between them. Kiprensky’s romantic - and Pushkin’s romantic, amid the lyre. The realist Tropinin draws the poet as a man with a casually wide open shirt collar, albeit with a pen in his hands.
Realism - seriously and for a long timeRealistic art begins to make its way from the thirties of the nineteenth century. And very soon it begins to determine and shape the artistic tastes of a significant number of the public. The basis of realism is the desire for a truthful and comprehensive reflection of the surrounding reality, a critical attitude towards bourgeois values, and a powerful social orientation. In Russia, realistic painting is, first of all, wanderers. At the turn of the century, realism is undergoing a certain temporary crisis. But it turns out to be enough for modernism to appear. By this term it is customary to denote a motley collection of those artistic movements and schools that sought to shake off the shackles of traditional art, break with realism and with its subjective art.
Alternative or false gloss?
Modernism is impressionism, and Fauvism, and symbolism, and futurism. The public sees less and less on the canvases of people, nature, animals. Instead, distorted proportions, obscure tones. Everything is colored with emotions and momentary moods of one or another author. As they say, further - more. After modernism - abstractionism. These are color spots, curved lines, a bizarre combination of geometric bodies. Cubism, luchism, surrealism. Only talent saved. This is about Picasso or Dali. Inertia swallowed Summer. Their destiny is oblivion in history. Finally, postmodernism, whose century has unreasonably long dragged on. There are no rules and canons. No confession or sermon. All is permissible. Complete eclecticism, i.e. a mixture of styles and heterogeneous elements. Bet on commercial success.
What have you come to? The development of painting styles, unfortunately, confirms the hypothesis of the Spanish philosopher H. Ortega y Gasset about the onset of the century of "dehumanization of art." No one denies the need for self-expression and no one restricts the artist in choosing the means for him. The only sad thing is that many are inclined to consider, like the old woman Shapoklyak from the cartoon, “one cannot become famous for good deeds”. The more scandalous - the louder the predicted success. And it’s unknown to such “artists” that time will still sift all the slag and husks, and the true art will remain. No dirt clings to him.
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