XIX century in the history of education in Russia Automatic translate
The Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent active participation of Russia in European affairs sharply brought Russia and Europe closer. The Great Patriotic War of 1812 led to a tremendous upsurge of national self-consciousness: the centuries-old foundations of Russian life — autocracy and serfdom, were called into question. Secret circles arose for young noble guardsmen (future Decembrists). And although the Orthodox Church in the previous century was relegated to the level of government, in it new phenomena began to be traced. The activity of monks ascetics - the elders, who became famous for his wisdom and righteous life, is becoming more and more noticeable. The most famous were Seraphim of Sarov, later ranked as saints, and the elders of Optina Desert - a small monastery near Kaluga.
At the beginning of the century, education was recognized as the most important area of public policy. The Ministry of Education is being created. The number of gymnasiums is increasing, lyceums are emerging. The Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was especially famous (where corporal punishment was first banned), from which A.S. Pushkin, the pride of our literature, A.M. Gorchakov, the future Minister of Foreign Affairs, etc. came out. Literacy committees functioned in many cities to promote the spread of primary education. Universities existed in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kharkov, Dorpat (Tartu), Kazan, Odessa, Tomsk. A number of scientific societies are founded, periodicals are developed.
In 1839, the observatory in Pulkovo near Petersburg with the most powerful telescope in the world at that time was inaugurated. Professor of Kazan University N.I. Lobachevsky (1792-1856) developed the geometry of curved space, which marked a new stage in the development of mathematics. In the field of physics, a number of remarkable discoveries belong to V.V. Petrov and E. Kh. Lents. A whole galaxy of Russian chemists is being promoted: N. N. Zinin, A. M. Butlerov, A. P. Borodin. In 1832 P.L. Schilling, ahead of S. Morse, creates an electromagnetic telegraph. The government instructed him to lay a telegraph underground line connecting all the buildings of the Admiralty. The first steamboat was launched in 1803, and the electric ship was created by B.S. Jacobi in 1839. Father and son E.A. and M.E. Cherepanovs in 1834 build one of the world’s first railways on the Urals factory, and then create a steam locomotive.
A huge step forward was made in the knowledge and comprehension of the Russian past. The famous historian and writer N. M. Karamzin (1766-1826) wrote "The History of the Russian State." His work gained immense popularity, thanks to him many Russians first learned about the richness and originality of Russian history.
In the second half of the century, a new upsurge of natural science begins in the Russian Empire. In the field of mathematics and mechanics, domestic science was glorified by P. A. Chebyshev, A. M. Lyapunov, S. V. Kovalevskaya, A. G. Stoletov. The pride of Russian natural sciences are D. I. Mendeleev, P. N. Lebedev, V. V. Dokuchaev, I. P. Pavlov, A. S. Popov, I. I. Mechnikov.
D.I. Mendeleev (1834-1907) was an encyclopedic scientist. In his vast scientific heritage, numbering about 500 works, there are works not only in chemistry, but also in physics, meteorology, aeronautics, agriculture, economics, etc. The scientist discovered in 1869 the periodic law of chemical elements brought him world fame., which are periodically dependent on the serial number or charge of the atomic nucleus.
I.I. Mechnikov (1845-1916) is one of the founders of evolutionary embryology and immunology. Together with N.F. Gamaley, he founded the first bacteriological station in Russia. He created the theory of the origin of multicellular organisms, dealt with the problems of aging.
The works of I.M.Sechenov (1829-1905) and I.P. Pavlova (1849-1936) enriched world physiology and provided a solid natural-scientific basis for a materialistic understanding of such complex phenomena as physiological and mental processes in highly developed animals and humans. Research in the field of electricity and magnetism, as well as the photoelectric effect, became famous for A. G. Stoletov (1839-1896). The history of science included A. S. Popov (1859-1905), the inventor of radio, and P. N. Yablochkov (1847-1894), inventor of the "arc lamp" (electric lighting). In 1882, according to the drawings of A.F. Mozhaysky (1825-1890), the construction of a manned aircraft was completed.
XIX century especially famous for the discoveries of our travelers. The first circumnavigation in Russian history (1803-1806) was carried out by I.F. Kruzenshtern. The expedition, led by F. F. Bellingshausen and M. P. Lazarev (1819-1821), came close to the "icy continent" - Antarctica, which can be regarded as the discovery of the sixth continent.
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Major achievements were made in the field of geography. The study of Central Asia was carried out by P.P. Semenov-Tian-Shansky (1827-1914). His associate N.P. Przhevalsky (1839-1888) explored the Ussuri region, Mongolia, China, Tibet. N.N. Miklouho-Maclay (1846-1888) traveled and studied the region of Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands. The scientific activities of these scientists enriched not only world geography, but also climatology, biology, geology, as well as ethnography and history. N. N. Miklouho-Maclay lived among the Papuans of New Guinea. Based on the results of his observations and research, he proved that the backwardness of island peoples is not related to biological (racial) causes, but is of a purely historical nature. Miklouho-Maclay actively opposed racism and colonialism. The richest ethnographic and anthropological collections brought by him from expeditions are housed in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography in St. Petersburg.
The need to democratize society - the abolition of autocracy and the elimination of serfdom was reflected in the ideological and political movements of Westerners and Slavophiles. Westerners considered Russia as part of world civilization, believing that it should develop according to progressive models, as the advanced countries of Western Europe. Since the 40s. a radical wing emerged from this trend in the person of V. G. Belinsky, A. I. Herzen, and others, who believed that it was impossible to transform Russian society only through reforms. The Slavophiles (brothers I.V. and P.V. Kireevsky, brothers K.S. and I.S. Aksakov, A.S. Khomyakov, Yu.F. Samarin, etc.) believed that Russia had its own, original way historical development that does not coincide with the "rotten" West. They idealized the rural community, saw liberalization in the idea of the revival of the Zemsky Sobor, freedom of thought. The era of the Great Reforms of the 60-70s. It began with the abolition of serfdom in 1861. This was the starting point of the transformation of the Russian state from the military-feudal-bureaucratic to the bourgeois-democratic.
Text writer: M.V. Sokolova
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