The appearance of the Russian epic epic Automatic translate
In connection with the adoption of Christianity and the intensification of international relations, many translations from Greek, Latin and Hebrew appeared. Original Russian literary works began to be created.
The extraordinary figure that advanced Russian culture forward was the Grand Duke Yaroslav (1019-1054), who even received the nickname the Wise. His most significant undertakings include the beginning of the formation of legislation called the Russian Truth. Henceforth, in Russia, on the basis of law, and not tradition, not the rights of the strong, relations in the state were regulated. Blood feud was limited. Defined fines (vira) for certain crimes. A characteristic feature of Russian Truth was the absence of the death penalty introduced subsequently. Responsibility before the law depended on the social status of a person, but not on his origin and faith.
Under Yaroslav, the first monasteries appeared, in particular, the future Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Pechersky Monastery). The chronicler Nestor noted that the Christian faith began to “multiply and expand, and the monks began to multiply, and monasteries appeared.” The first library was created at the Hagia Sophia. Yaroslav the Wise himself was a bibliophile, a huge number of books were purchased and brought to Kiev from Byzantium, scribes worked in monasteries. Yaroslav, who himself knew six foreign languages, encouraged the study of sciences. Under him, at the request of his sister, a school was opened for girls, which was very rare for Europe at that time. In The Tale of Bygone Years, he was compared to a sower who “sowed in the words of a book the hearts of believers. It was under Yaroslav the Wise that Russia declared its church independence. For the first time the Metropolitan was not sent from Byzantium, but was raised by the Grand Duke from the Russian clergy. The first Russian metropolitan was an associate of Yaroslav - Hilarion. Yaroslav the Wise was buried in St. Sophia Cathedral, where he is called the "Czar" - the Tsar.
In the 10th century, when the process of strengthening the state was in progress, a heroic epic epic arose. Gradually, a certain melodious style developed in the transfer of epics, or antiquity. The heroes embodied the best human qualities: patriotism, honesty, courage, loyalty, strength. In the epics of Ilya Muromets, his struggle with the Nightingale the Robber and Idolisch Pogany is narrated. Next to him is Sly, loving to boast Alyosha Popovich and intelligent, educated Dobrynya Nikitich. All of them are defenders of the Russian state.
Another world is revealed in the Novgorod epics about the daredevil Vasily Buslaev, who believes only in his own strength and courage. Guslar Sadko conquers the sea king with his game. These epics introduce the life of Novgorod.
The work of the farmer was reflected in epics about a plowman Mikul Selyaninovich endowed with wonderful heroic power. He was part of the squad of the son of Svyatoslav Oleg, who fought with the Vikings in 975. But the epic characters are immeasurably more than the heroes. Among them are Prince Vladimir himself, and Polkan Polkanovich, and Marya Lebed Belaya, and others.
In epics, Russian history was also reflected. One of the differences in the epic from the annals is that in chronicles that reacted very strongly to the socio-political situation in the country, the fate of Russia in difficult, crucial moments depends on the Kiev prince, and in epic, in a moment of danger, heroes from of the people.
The epic cycle is dedicated to Prince Vladimir the Red Sun, who defended Russia from the conquerors. Another cycle is dedicated to Vladimir Monomakh and his struggle with the Polovtsy. Recording epics began in the XVII century. Now about 3 thousand epics have been recorded, but how many of them were in those days, it is impossible to say.
Chic wedding in the palace in Russian traditions.
There are many plots common with European ones in epics. But there is also a significant difference between the Russian epic and the epic of the early European Middle Ages. Both here and there is a struggle with foreigners. But in Russia, the main idea of epics and Old Russian annalistic tales is liberation, and in knightly chronicles the conquest and baptism of Gentiles. The idea of a religious war is completely absent in domestic epics, however, there are also no ideas of racial intransigence and hostility. In the West, the motto “Whoever is not killed is baptized”, and in Russia - “Here is a permanent stand for faith, for the fatherland, Here is a permanent stand for the glorious capital city of Kiev.” Even in the early Middle Ages, you can see the difference with the West European epic, where the struggle for glory and jewelry, for fidelity to the leader, and blood feud are glorified. In the ancient Russian epos, these topics did not become defining.
A large place in epics is given to transitional potions. At that time, caliks called pilgrims to the Holy Land. From time immemorial, it was customary to help the Kaliks and feed them for Christ’s sake, as they went to worship the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. The Kaliki were not only not opposed to the heroes, but often were themselves heroes. This is no accident, because the psychological world of epic heroes included the concepts of awareness and atonement for sins. Pilgrimage was a traditional form of atonement. It in itself was equated with a feat. Thus, there is an equalization of spiritual achievement to the military one. Of these heroes, we can name Dmitry Solunsky, Aniku the warrior, Alexei of God, and others. They are spiritual heroes.
Text writer: M.V.Sokolova