Conditions for the restoration of culture in the postwar years Automatic translate
From the beginning of 1949, a campaign was launched against "cosmopolitanism." Its object was mainly the Jewish intelligentsia. The campaign reached its climax in 1952 and the first months of 1953. Leading figures of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, dissolved in 1948, were repressed, and the case of “killer doctors” was staged. Before the death of I.V. Stalin (1879-1953), preparations were made for the mass deportation of Jews from large cities.
The history of the Russian Empire began to be interpreted as a progressive process of unification of peoples under the auspices of Russia. Therefore, Shamil, who fought against tsarism in the Caucasus in the first half of the 19th century, was declared an "English spy." The national epic of Muslim peoples (Azerbaijani “Dede Kurkut”, Kazakh “Shota Batyr”, Uzbek “Alpamysh”, Kyrgyz “Manas” and others) was sharply criticized and banned for “clerical and anti-people orientation”.
At the beginning of the post-war period, a number of scientific discussions were launched on philosophy, economics, and linguistics. Initially, they were of a scientific nature, but then degenerated into a condemnation of "bourgeois ideology" and reprisals against persons who, for one reason or another, became objectionable to IV Stalin. However, where the "witch hunt" threatened to affect the interests of science serving the military-industrial complex, it usually stopped. So, a veto was laid on the planned rout among nuclear physicists. However, the condemnation of cybernetics as a "servant and corrupt girl of imperialism" and "occult science" delayed the development of this science in our country.
By the early 1920s most writers finally decided for themselves the most important question - to accept or not to accept the October Revolution. A sharp ideological struggle affected the emergence of various groups. At that time, there were about thirty different literary associations, most of them not numerous.
Among them are such groups as “The Serapion Brothers”, the All-Russian Society of Proletarian Writers (GP), “Working Spring”, “October”, “Young Guard”, the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (RAPP), LEF (Left Front of Art), “Pass”, LCC (Literary Center of Constructivists), etc. A.N. Tolstoy described this period as follows: “Literature was that mushroom summer that old-timers do not remember. Schools, schools, mugs popped up on it in mushroom abundance. ”
Three directions were revealed in the writing environment. Unconditionally accepted the new system of RAPP, focusing on the work of writers who left the workers and peasants. Those who collaborated with the new government, but were not committed to communist ideology, were called “travel companions” by the Rappans. A number of writers, such as members of the “Pass” group, believed that Soviet literature should continue the best traditions of Russian literature.
The theme of revolution and the Civil War dominated literature. One of the most outstanding works of the first post-revolutionary years was the poem by A. A. Blok “The Twelve”. Its main theme was the passionate denial of the old world, the affirmation of the greatness of the revolution, perceived as a struggle for a new life, purified from the "old filth". The features of the emerging socialist realism are visible in the works of D. A. Furmanov. Realism, taken to the extreme and turning into naturalism, is characteristic of I.E.Babel and B.Pilnyak, grotesque and science fiction manifested themselves in the works of M.A. Bulgakov, A.P. Platonov, V.V. Mayakovsky.
Modernism has not disappeared from the historical arena. In the literature in the early 1920s. there were currents of futurists, imagists, oberiuts. Imaginists (S.A. Yesenin, A. B. Mariengof, V. G. Shershenevich) claimed in their work the intrinsic value of a word-image not connected with reality. They did not believe that relations between art and the state were necessarily antagonistic. It is no coincidence S.A. Yesenin wrote: "I want to be a singer and a citizen." Creativity of the Oberiuts, which included N.A. Zabolotsky, D.I. Kharms, A. I. Vvedensky, was characterized by alogism, absurdity, and grotesque. Through them, the word artists tried to express the conflicting perceptions of life.
Text writer - M.V. Sokolova