The influence of Peter’s reforms on the development of Russian culture Automatic translate
The transition to classicism in architecture occurred in the 1760s. with the reign of Catherine II. In 1763, a decree was issued “On making special plans for all cities, their streets and buildings, for each province especially.” But besides civil engineering, palaces, estates, museums, etc. were erected on personal orders. The names of the largest nobles of that time - the Stroganovs, Vorontsovs, Golitsyns, Sheremetevs, are associated with many architectural monuments. The wooden architecture reached great heights. The twenty-two-main church in Kizhi, consecrated in 1714, belongs to the masterpieces of wooden architecture.
Peter’s reforms paved the way for new, European forms of playing music. By special decrees, music was widely introduced into the life of the royal court, into everyday life, into the army. She must have been heard at all assemblies, holidays, parades. But the church was still dominated by the polyphonic partisan singing. In the second half of the XVIII century. a national composer school began to take shape. The first printed collections of folk songs appeared. The choral art has reached a large scale. A brilliant galaxy of domestic musicians has advanced: M. M. Sokolovsky (1756-?), D. S. Bortnyansky (1751-1825), M. S. Berezovsky (1745-1777), E. I. Fomin (1761-1800) and etc. In the second half of the XVIII century. operas began to be staged on the stages of serf theaters. The Moscow theaters of P.M. Volkonsky and B.P. Sheremetev were especially notable. Opera has become a leading music genre.
In the second half of the XVIII century. a romance appears. The disbelief ceases to exist. The character of playing music in urban life is changing. Balalaika and bagpipes come into use. The city song genre also contributed to the establishment of such a musical instrument as a guitar. The six-stringed Spanish guitar was reconstructed by our guitarist A. O. Sichra (1773-1850), who made it seven-stringed and established a new system. In general, in the XVIII century. In Russia, the national composer school established itself, a number of musical genres developed and prerequisites were created for the flourishing of Russian classical art.
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The private public city theater built its repertoire on historical comedies, chivalrous novels and sideshows of very frivolous content. But since the middle of the XVIII century. classicism becomes the main focus, and then a professional theater appears. The founder of Russian classical drama was A.P. Sumarokov. The plays were staged by D. I. Fonvizin, M. M. Kheraskov, N. I. Novikov, as well as Schiller, Beaumarchais, Voltaire. The outstanding artists of that time were F. G. Volkov, Y. Shumskoy, A. Popov. Towards the end of the century, the traits of sentimentalism and realism began to emerge more and more in drama. The poetic form in the plays was replaced by prose. The first theatrical educational institution, the Dance School, was opened in 1738. Drama and opera began to be taught in the Shlyakheti building in St. Petersburg since 1752, and three years later these same disciplines entered the curriculum of Moscow University.
XVIII century It represented an important stage in the formation of Russian national culture; it also paved the way for the further scientific, technical and cultural development of Russia, although in comparison with European countries the general level of science and culture lagged far behind. Absolutism and feudal serfdom oppression, the extreme degree of exploitation of peasants, the thinnest layer of educated people and complete political lawlessness were serious obstacles to the escalation of culture.